Bones of a 8-9 Foot Indian – La Crosse Wi

 

 This article was posted in Facebook today by my friend: Micah Ewes.  This is a
typical newspaper article that was posted back the 1800’s when people were digging giant skeletons out of their graves.  It is sad that we say that these articles inconclusive.  However, there are too many to disregard the messages that they send, isn’t there?  I’d say that Micah has over 1000 articles that he has gathered over the years.  So, enjoy …. giants existed.  And, I believe that they were two different races:  a black haired race that was eventually replaced by a red-haired race.
Stay warm!
A 28 inch tibia is almost twice as long as normal. A skull 15 inches from chin to crown is also about double. If these dimensions are accurate that would be a very large person. Lots of reports do exist with these limb dimensions considerably exceeding 20 inches, and these are the reports I find potentially interesting if any primary sources could be tracked, as it tends to suggest an actual very large individual rather than the occasional instances of normal sized bones being miscalculated, or a skeleton stretching in situ in the grave and disarticulating. More data is needed to resolve these questions.

A 28 inch tibia is almost twice as long as normal. A skull 15 inches from chin to crown is also about double. If these dimensions are accurate that would be a very large person. Lots of reports do exist with these limb dimensions considerably exceeding 20 inches, and these are the reports I find potentially interesting if any primary sources could be tracked, as it tends to suggest an actual very large individual rather than the occasional instances of normal sized bones being miscalculated, or a skeleton stretching in situ in the grave and disarticulating. More data is needed to resolve these questions.

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Giant steps in the temple of Ain Dara

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The Ain Dara Temple

The Ain Dara Temple and the giant footsteps of the Gods

Ain Dara is a small village in the northwest of Aleppo, Syria, which boasts a remarkable structure – the Ain Dara Temple, located just west of the village.  The temple was discovered in 1955, when a colossal basalt lion was found, quite accidentally, in fact. Following this find, excavations were carried out in subsequent years.

The Ain Dara Temple is an Iron Age Syro-Hittite temple. The Syro-Hittites or Neo-Hittites were a group of political entities that emerged towards the end of the 2nd millennium B.C. Following the collapse of the Hittite Empire, there was a power vacuum in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Syro-Hittite states filled this vacuum and became the dominant power in the region until their conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire at the end of the 8th century B.C.

Although the Syro-Hittites are today distinguished from the Hittites, the former probably did not see themselves as different from their predecessors. This can be supported by the epigraphic evidence and the cultural continuity of the region. For instance, the styles of temples built during the Late Bronze Age continued into the Early Iron Age. One of these temples, believed to have been built during the Early Iron Age, was the Ain Dara Temple.

To enter the temple, one would first have to go through a courtyard built with sandstones and paved with flagstones. A chalkstone basin, perhaps for ceremonial purposes is seen there. The temple, measuring 30 x 30 metres and facing southeast, stood on a 2.5-foot-high platform made of rubble and limestone and was lined with basalt blocks engraved with lions, sphinxes and other mythic creatures. A monumental staircase, flanked on each side by a sphinx and two lions, led up to the temple portico.

After the portico, one would reach the middle room, which measured 6 x 15.5m, followed by the main hall, which was 16 x 16m in size. At the end of this hall was the inner room/sanctum. The cult statue was probably housed in a niche in the back wall of the sanctum.   The building was once covered with rows of basalt reliefs of sphinxes, lions, mountain gods and large clawed creatures whose feet alone remain.

A floor plan of the Ain Dara Temple

A floor plan of the Ain Dara Temple. Image source.

One of the interesting features of the Ain Dara Temple is the footprints carved into the stone floor of the temple. One pair of footprints can be found on the floor of the portico, followed by a single footprint, and another single footprint at the threshold of the main hall. The distance between the two single footprints is about 30 feet. A stride of 30 feet would belong to a person (or ‘god’) about 65 feet tall.

The giant pair of footprints at the Ain Dara Temple

The giant pair of footprints at the Ain Dara Temple. Photo source.

It is not suggested here that the footsteps are real imprints made by a large person walking over the threshold of the temple, but rather that they were carved by the creators of the temple. The question is, why?

It is still unknown whose footprints these were meant to represent.  Some scholars have suggested they are animal prints, while others have suggested they depict the footsteps of the gods. Perhaps, these footprints (measuring about a metre in length) were meant to be an iconic representation of the resident deity. These footprints may have been carved to show the presence of the resident deity as he/she entered his/her temple and approached the throne in the inner sanctum.

Giant steps in the temple of Ain Dara

Giant steps in the temple of Ain Dara. Photo source.

Another interesting feature about the Ain Dara Temple is its similarities with the biblical description of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. It has been claimed that these two temples were similar in their floor plan, age, size and decoration. Before jumping to the conclusion that one temple influenced the other, it should be mentioned that there are also temples in that region that are comparable to both the Ain Dara Temple and Solomon’s Temple. These temples include that of Ebla, Emar, and Munbaqa. Therefore, it may be suggested that these temples belonged to a wider cultural tradition that dominated the region during that time.

Featured image: The remains of the Ain Dara Temple. Photo source.

By Ḏḥwty

– See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/ain-dara-temple-and-giant-footsteps-gods-001655#sthash.E8hnxCxj.dpuf

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Evidence linking humans to North America 15,500 years ago

Our history continues to change with new archeological discoveries.  
Ancient Origins recently posted an article (January 1, 2015) about men in inhabiting
North America 15,500 years ago when the megaflora and megafauna existed.
Since I am a believer in giants, I personally believe that men were
much larger during this time and as the mega world died, these large
humans also dwindled.  My beliefs are in alignment with another
friend/historian/author Ross Hamilton.  Perhaps, we will find one of
the allusive skeletons pretty soon.  But, until I learn more about 
Bruce Fenton's dig next summer in Georgia, Europe; I will keep posting
interesting articles for you to read.  

I hope you have a good night and stay warm.   

Sherry   .....  See article below

Mammoth hunting scene

First humans in Florida lived alongside giant animals

Recent research has confirmed an old theory that the first humans in Florida lived alongside giant animals that have since become extinct. A geologist made the proposal a century ago following the discovery of numerous fossils at Vero Beach in the early 1900s, but this theory was met with resistance until it was recently proven by bone analysis.

Findings in 2014 at the most extensive prehistoric excavation in North America, the Old Man Vero site, show that humans and late Pleistocene animals, some of them gigantic, lived contemporaneously in the same vicinity. The latest evidence confirms a 2012 study of bones at the Vero site.

Archaeologists from Mercyhurst Archaeological Institute didn’t find actual human remains in the dig’s first round in 2014. However, they did find artifacts they identified as burned fragments of bone, some with cut marks, which could only be the work of human beings, the institute’s director, James Adovasio, told PastHorizons: Adventures in Archaeology.

Illustration of mammoth or mastodon tusk with marks presumed to have been made by humans found by E. H. Sellard at Vero man site in 1916

Illustration of mammoth or mastodon tusk with marks presumed to have been made by humans found by E. H. Sellard at Vero man site in 1916 (Wikimedia Commons)

E.H. Sellards, Florida’s geologist in the early 1900s theorized the giant animals, now extinct, and humans lived there at the same time. His theory met resistance until it was confirmed by bone analysis in 2012. Workers found human skull bones there in 1915, which have come to be known as ‘Vero Man’.

It’s taken more than 100 years, but we now know that Sellards was right,” Advovasio said. He added that new technology and rigorous excavation protocols enabled investigators to proceed with a precise understanding of the site’s geology. Sellards did not have such technology.

National Geographic published a report showing humans first settled the Americas beginning 15,500 years ago and were in Florida 14,400 years ago. National Geographic says archaeological evidence and a genome sequencing of an ancient Native American show humans were here earlier than 13,000 years ago, which had been theorized relatively recently.

When people finally arrived in the Americas, they co-existed with what are called megafauna and megaflora, huge plants and animals that died out 10,000 to 13,000 years ago. Some people have speculated the first people here hunted them to extinction, but this has not been confirmed. Other scientists say climate change, a disease carried to the Americas by humans or a comet may have killed the megafauna.

Artist's conception of Pleistocene Vero man and cave bear Arctodus. In Fossil Mammals of Florida by Stanley J. Olsen, Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 6, 1959

Artist’s conception of Pleistocene Vero man and cave bear Arctodus. In Fossil Mammals of Florida by Stanley J. Olsen, Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 6, 1959 (Wikimedia Commons)

Pleistocene animals in North America then, though not all necessarily present in Florida, included giant sloths; short-faced bears up to 12 feet (3.66 meters) tall; dire wolves 25 percent heavier than modern wolves; 9-foot (2.75-meter) saber-tooth salmon; the American lion; 1,000-pound (454 kilograms) saber-tooth cats; tapirs; peccaries; giant condors and other birds now extinct; at least two species of bison, one of which could weigh more than 4,400 pounds (2,000 kilograms); oxen; llamas; horses; mastodons; giant armadillos; giant tortoises; Miracinonyx, or American cheetahs that are not true cheetahs; and 14 species of pronghorn, of which 13 are extinct.

“In 1913,” Discovery.com said, “construction of a drainage canal turned up fossils in Vero Beach, Fla., about 90 miles north of West Palm Beach. When geologists followed up, they unearthed the bones of all sorts of ancient animals that lived during the last Ice Age, including jaguars, capybaras, bison, peccaries, mastodons and other creatures, large and small. Alongside the animal bones in the same layer of soil lay human skeletons.”

There had been controversy about whether people in Florida and Pleistocene animals lived at the same time, but analysis of bones by a University of Florida paleontologist in 2012 showed they did indeed live contemporaneously there, Discovery.com said.

Studies have shown that in Montana, New Mexico, Arizona, Ohio and elsewhere, people also lived alongside mammoths, mastodons, and other massive mammals more than 10,000 years ago, Kenneth Tankersley, an archaeological geologist at the University of Cincinnati, told Discovery.com.

Stone Age man and saber-tooth cat

Stone Age man and saber-tooth cat. Source: BigStockPhoto

The Mercyhurst Archaeological Institute dug at Vero Beach from January to May 2014 at the invitation of the Old Vero Man Ice Age Sites Committee. They began just in time because the local government is planning to build a stormwater treatment facility on the site, using 200 tons of concrete. New archaeological excavations will start in early 2015.

Archaeologists and students will concentrate their second round in a buried soil layer dating back 19,000 years. Adovasio said if they find evidence of humans in that layer, it would be the earliest in the Americas yet.

The scientists hope future investigations will show how humans, animals and plant populations interrelated at Vero. Adovasio said they hope to distinguish lifestyles of the folks who might have lived at Vero in terms of how much they match or don’t match other behavioral models from other sites,” he told PastHorizons.

Mercyhurst Archaeological Insitute will work with Florida Atlantic University scientists to analyze ancient DNA found at the site. The idea is to better understand life forms in Florida at the end of the last Ice Age.

Featured image: Mammoth hunting scene [Credit: Indian River Community Foundation]

By Mark Miller

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/first-humans-florida-lived-alongside-giant-animals-002518#sthash.Dt1EBb3V.koixCsv2.dpuf
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Was North America the Home of the Giant Denisovans?

I found this posted on Facebook and I am forwarding it to you.  It is a good article on the theory that the giant Denisovans originated in North America and potentially spread to other continents from here.  A thought that I find fascinating since they have found fossilized human footprints that are walking beside dinosaurs in Arizona/Utah (near corner) and Texas.  It is a fairly long article and it is chucked with facts about an intelligent race of giants with six fingers and elongated skulls (some with bi-rows of teeth) and the ongoing question about why the massive cover-up.   Hopefully, we will eventually get to the bottom of this nagging question.

 

Did the Denisovans become the legendary giants in the Indian mounds of the USA? Skeleton from Pennsylvania

In the TV-program “Search for the Lost Giants” it was said that I had the theory that the Denisova hominins from Siberia could have island-hopped across the Pacific, intermarried and ended up as the large bones found in Indian mounds. Well, let us take a closer look at this theory! 

First; the mainstream theory of the human development: 700.000 years ago a group of humans left Africa and spread across Europe and Central Asia. They became Neanderthals and Denisovans, and the humans they left behind became us modern Homo sapiens. It went hundreds of thousands of years before we made it out of Africa 100 to 80 thousand years ago.
So what happened to our human cousins? Well, the scientists now believe that the Neanderthals died out about 40.000 years ago, but they do not have enough data when it comes to the Denisovans and their downfall. They believe that these three human species interbred; because some of us Homo sapiens sapiens, have genomes from both Denisovans and Neanderthals. 
Australian aborigines, New Guineans and some Pacific Islanders are said to have about 6 percent Denisovan genes, while some mainland Asian populations and Native Americans have about 0.2 percent Denisovan genes.

Click on the pictures
for more information:

Denisova cave
Denisova cave
Denosiva Cave - digging and artefacts
High speed drilling! High speed drilling!
Modern molar compared to Denisova tooth.
Modern and Denisova tooth
Terry with the tooth
Terry with the tooth
Coco Loco at Bora Bora
Coco Loco at Bora Bora
Denosiva Cave - red spot
Denisova Cave (red spot)
The Densovan migration
The Densovan migration
A large ocean!
A large ocean!
Ocean currents
Currents of the Pacific
Glidden and 8 1/2 feet skeleton
Glidden and skeleton
Indians are rising out of legend.
Catalina; 7 Feet 8 Inches
Santa Rosa Island cemetry
Santa Rosa skeletons
Indian Skeleton
Skeleton 7 feet 2 1/4 inches
Spread from Catalina?
Spread out from Catalina?
Altai statues and megaliths
Altai statues and megaliths
Salbyk kurgan before excavations
Salbyk kurgan, Altai
Siberia megaliths
Megalithic wall, Siberia 
(See the man standing!)
Ukraine,2.20 m
Ukraine,2.20 m
Woman in Azerbaijan kurgan, 2.20m
Azerbaijan kurgan, 2.20m
Skeleton from Don-steppe-area, 2.10m
Don-steppe, 2.10m
Prof. Vekua showing bones
Prof. Vekua showing bones

Denisova Cave
Denisova Cave is a cave in the Bashelaksky Range of the Altai mountains in the southern part of Siberia in Russia
In March 2010 scientists announced that they had discovered a finger bone of a young female who lived about 40,000 years ago. The finger bone was “unusually broad and robust, well outside the variation seen in modern people”. Later two teeth and a toe bone were also found. An interestingly enough: In the same layer they found artefacts, including a stone bracelet, that were carbon dated to the same period.
– The fossil was found with modern technology and ornaments, including a very beautiful bracelet, one of the researchers said.
The bracelet that was made of polished dark green chloritolite. It was delicately shaped, highly polished, and 
demonstrated a high level of technological skills; a hole for a pendant less than 8 mm wide was drilled with a tapered drill that must have been running with considerable speed!
Largest home tooth
It is difficult to say how the Denisovans looked like – what has been found in the Denisova cave is all we have so far! Some believe that the finger had belonged to a little girl with dark skin, brown hair and brown eyes, but new findings might change that view. 
The first tooth found in the cave is the largest homo tooth ever found; it was so large that the archaeologist at first mistook it for a cave bear tooth!
I know that some people say that the tooth I am showing in the TV-program was of an animal and not a human. Well, the producer gave it to me in the hospital bed just before the camera started rolling and told me it was a replica of the Denisova tooth. I had no chance to check. I remember I thought it looked a bit different from the Denisova tooth I had seen picture of, but it was found two teeth in the Denisova cave and I thought it might have been a replica of the other!
Across the Pacific
In the show it was said that I had the theory that the Denisova hominins from Siberia could have island-hopped across the Pacific.
Well, I sailed solo across the Pacific in my 23 feet yacht “Coco Loco”, so it is possible to sail on the high seas in small boats. My countryman Thor Heyerdahl of the Kon-Tiki, Ra and Tigris fame also proved that it is possible to sail across the oceans in so called primitive, ancient vessels. 
– The world’s oceans were not barriers, but roads, he said.
The trick is of course to have a vessel that not will sink and also to follow the winds and currents. 
Let us say that the Denisovans were able to cross the land going eastwards from the Altai Mountains and then used their technological skills to make seaworthy vessel. But island hopping? If they travelled towards the east they would have to start the crossing of the Pacific from Japan. There are not many islands between Japan and the coast of California! You have the Hawaii islands but they are a bit to the south. And the ocean current is going in a curve northwards. A plane from Tokyo to Honolulu will take about 7 hours (it take 9 hours the other way because of the prevailing winds), a yacht would use about a month. 
Well, since the highest percentage of Denisovan genes are found in Papua New Guinea then might be the Denisovans travelled south and started island hopping from there? Well, the Denisova genes have been found also at some of the Melanesian islands close to Papua New Guinea but so far nothing on the Polynesian and Micronesian islands. And the island hopping would only bring you less than half way across the Pacific – it is just so much empty ocean! 
No, I do believe that we have to forget the island hopping. It was not my own words in the show anyway!
But of course they could have crossed the Pacific Ocean and got to Catalina Island! A northern route following the North Pacific gyre would bring them from Japan to California! A very long and sometimes cold journey but very much possible!
A direct route pushed by the Equatorial counter current could also have brought a boat from the islands around Papua New Guinea and to the coast of the USA but the landing would have been as bit to the south. 
Bones on the Channel Islands
So did the Denisovans reach the western American shores? I do not know if there have been done any DNA-tests of bones on the Channel Islands off the Californian coast. According to the mainstream scientists the ancient people of the islands were all local Indians and the disturbance of dead Native Americans is not allowed due to the repatriation act. But we do have stories, even pictures, of large skeletons! 
Ralph Glidden was an amateur archaeologist who uncovered ancient burial sites on the Channel Islands from 1919 to 1928: In addition to finding thousands of artefacts he also dug up almost 4000 human skeletons. Most of all the male adults were around 7 feet (2.20 m) in hight, and largest skeleton he found was 9 feet 2 inches (2.80 m) tall. He claimed that there once had lived an ancient race of tall and fair haired Indians on the islands.
According to Pittsburgh Press July 20, 1913 and Daily Telegraph on July 26; a German naturalist named Dr. A.W Furstenan unearthed an 8 foot skeleton on Catalina Island, he had travelled to the island because he while in Mexico had heard a legend of a noble race of giants that had lived on Catalina Island long before the white man had arrived. 
In 1959 several skeletons more than 7 feet tall was discovered on Santa Rosa Island. The tops of the skulls were painted red. The skulls were said to be of “primitive”, “otamid” type; sloped forehead, pronounced brow, robust bones, powerful jaw, and a “inca bone” at the back of the skull. Some were also said to have double rows of teeth.
In 1897 relic hunters stayed three weeks on barren San Nicolas Island and Newark Daily Advocate tells about “Bones of a Giant Race on San Nicolas Island”. They found evidence that the island had been inhabited of two or more different races; “one of which was of great size”.
Click here for my article about Catalina Island.
Disappeared civilization 
In the TV-show it was said that I believed that the Denisovans had landed on Catalina Island; inbreeding with Homo sapiens and creating an ancient breed of giant man that eventually spreads throughout the whole of North America. So if this was the case then we should be able to find ancient sites and artefacts that look the same on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. Might be even simular looking skulls and large skeletons! 
    Let us go back to where it should have started; the Altai Mountain in the southern Siberia. It is one of the richest regions in megalithic sites, with huge stone walls, dolmen and menhirs. There are also many legends of ancient giants; they should have built all the megalithic structures – and they are linked to legends of a disappeared civilization. 
“Almas” is Mongolian for “wild man”, and they were supposed to be human-like, between five and six and a half feet tall (the male often much taller), their bodies covered with reddish-brown hair, with facial features including a pronounced browridge, flat nose, and a weak chin. Some scientists say that they are a relict population of Neanderthals or surviving specimens of Homo Erectus. They have also been connected to the Denisova Hominins found in Siberia and to the Yeti of the Himalayas. Stories and reports dating from the last fifty years tells about almas around the Caucasus mountains near Russia and the Black Sea. 
“The Narts were a tribe of heroes. They were huge, tall people”; so you can read in the Nart sagas, a series of tales originating from the North Caucasus.
The Altai Mountains are also known for the many kurgans; mounds of earth and stones raised over a grave (also called tumuli, burrows, burial mounds or cairns). The earliest kurgans are said to have appeared in the 4th millennium BC. The kurgans of Altai Mountains are often called “The Frozen Tombs”. One of the largest kurgans is Salbyk kurgan, less than 200 kilometres from the Denisova cave. Before excavations it was 25-30 meter in hight and had a diameter of 500 meters. Salbyk kurgan is surrounded by “balbals” (meaning “ancestor”, a kind of stone statue: a stelae/stele) and with a kurgan obelisk on the top.
The skeletons in the tombs of the kurgans were often found buried in a sitting or hunched position. 
I have not been able to find any pictures or reports of giant bones found in the kurgans of Altai Mountains but in the neighbouring country of Azerbaijan a 7 feet 3 inch tall woman from 2000 BC has been found and also from Ukraine and the Don-steppe area large skeletons have been found. 
Channel One, the major broadcasting company in Russia, had a long news-report showing how a team of researchers found giants bones in the wilderness of Borjomi in Georgia on the other side of the Caspian Sea. The person showing the bones and telling that they had belonged to a human giant is the world-famous archaeologist and pantologist Professor Abesalom Vekua!

Pauite Indians
Let us go back to the USA and take a closer look at what we can find there. Are there any legends about ancient human giants? Yes, heaps! Many Native American tribes like Hurons, Iroquois, Tuscaroras, Osage, Omahas and Paiute still remember the legends how their ancestors fought wars against the giants hundreds, might be thousands of years ago. 
Sarah Winnemucca published her book: “Life Among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims” in 1983. She is writing: “My people say that the tribe we exterminated had reddish hair. I have some of their hair, which has been handed down from father to son. I have a dress which has been in our family a great many years, trimmed with the reddish hair.” 
According to the legends of the Pauite Indians there was a red-haired tribe of cannibals that harassed them with war, and Sarah Winnemucca wrote that their own tribes one day had enough and banded together. They battled them successfully and drove the last Si-Te Cah, the “tule eaters”, to the Lovelock cave. The Pauite filled the cave-entrance with bush and set it ablaze. The Si-Te Cah that tried to get out was shot with arrows and the remaining in the cave suffocated and died.

Sarah Winnemucca
Sarah Winnemucca

    In her book she is also writing that her grandfather was chief of the Paiute nation, and when they were camped near Humboldt Lake with a small portion of his tribe, they saw a party of white settlers coming eastward from California. When the grandfather was told that they had hair on their faces and were white he had jumped up, clasped his hands together and cried aloud: “My white brothers…my long-looked for white brothers have come at last!” 
    Sarah Winnemucca is said to have been a full-blooded Indian but the title of her book and also her features hint that her distant relatives indeed might have had brothers looking very different to the Paiute! 

Lovelock-pestle
Lovelock-pestle
Lovelock sandal
Lovelock sandal

The Lovelock cave is real
Well, we know that the Lovelock cave is real.
Just below the cave an extremely large pestle made of pink rhyolite was found. It weighs 12.5 kg (27 lbs.) and is 66 cm long. It would be as good as impossible for a normal sized person to use this pestle!
Several sandals made of tule fiber were found in the cave, and one reported at over 15 inches (38 cm) in length. That would be a shoe size of 22 in modern times but how could you find a shoe of that size today? The common size for a person 6 feet tall (180cm) is size 10-11! 
We know that there have been found human remains in the cave but if any of them were after the red haired tule-eaters of gigantic size is not so certain: James H. Hart, one of the two miners who excavated the cave in 1911, wrote in his report that they found “a striking looking body of a man six feet six inches tall, his body was mummified and his hair distinctly red”. But he also wrote that the mummy was boiled and destroyed by a local fraternal lodge, which wanted the skeleton for initiation purposes.
Click here for my article about Lovelock cave/giants.
Indian mounds

Morhiss mound
Morhiss Mound
Spanish Hill mound
Spanish Hill Mound
Conneaut mound
Conneaut Mound

To bury their most prominent leaders in kurgans were, as we have seen, common among the ancient people of Altai Mountains and elsewhere in south Siberia. In ancient North America this was also a common practise but here the burial mounds are called “Indian Mounds”, and they are mostly made from earth. 
How many Indian mounds there once were in USA is impossible to say today but it could have been several hundred thousand. There were once estimated to be around 10,000 Indian mounds and earthworks in the central Ohio valley alone!
We call them Indian mounds but the Indians, what we today call Native Americans, said that it was not their ancestors that had built the mounds but the people before them. Yes, the old men told the first settlers that they had no knowledge of the former inhabitants; they only knew the legends about them. It was not their custom to bury the dead people in tombs. It had happened that some of the chiefs and other respected warriors had been buried in existing, old mound and that some even tried to make a mound to copy the powerful ancient giants but it was not their custom. The oldest, as far as we know, mound in the USA is dated to about 6.000 BC.
The first settlers did not have much time to worry about ancient mounds; they needed the land for farming, for roads, houses, factories and cities. Well, some people did; the treasure hunters looking for gold or other valuable items they could sell, often to overseas collectors or museums. The settles just dug the mounds away, levelled them or used the soil for their farms. 
Crumbled to dust
Most people of those days did not have much respect for Indians – dead or not. Most of the skeletons were just scuffled to the side or trampled to pieces. But of course some people noticed that many of the skeletons were very large; of people that was so much taller than themselves. Often the heads were very large and elongated, and it seemed like the skeletons sometimes had six fingers and toes and also double set of teeth. It seemed like that the oldest skeletons crumbled to dust as soon as the mounds were opened. And they were also often the largest. 

“The eyes of that species of extinct giants, whose bones fill the mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now.” Abraham Lincoln – 1848.

    The large skeletons started to create some interest in the middle of the 1800s. The settlers were well and truly settled and the newspapers were up and running. When the Smithsonian Institution was established in 1846, people started to send the museum the most complete skulls and/or skeletons, often together with other findings in the mounds (most often with a hope of getting paid). And their field agents were sent to take a look at the most interesting mounds, even if they seemed to pay little attention to the skeletons. They definitely stayed away from using the word “giants” – for them the large skeletons were just tall Indians.
Tall Indians
The first explorers and settlers to North America did not pay much attention to the mounds but they definitely paid attention to the Indians. From 1600 or so the English settlement was contested by several tribes, with more that 40 wars! 20.000 settlers shall have been killed and more than 50.000 Indians. 
The first explorer were surpised to see that some of the Indian chiefs were very tall. 

De Soto and Tuscaloosa
de Soto and Tuscaloosa

    The Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto, travelled 1540-1542 in the area that much later became the southeast United States. He saw people living in fortified towns with large mounds that he believed were foundations for their temples. Many of the Indian chiefs were taller than their tribe members and also the Spaniards. 
An Indian named Tuscaloosa was the chief (cacique) a large Mississippian area in what today is the state of Alabama. Tuscaloosa was very tall. Garcilaso de la Vega, who accompanied De Soto, wrote that his physical appearance: “were like those of his son, for both were more than a half-yard taller than all the others. He appeared to be a giant, or rather was one, and his limbs and face were in proportion to the height of his body”.
The Spanish were received well by Tuscaloosa in his village but when de Soto demanded porters and women, the chief said that he was accustomed to being served, and not vice versa. Tuskaloosa was taken hostage but later in the Indian town of Mabila, it came to a battle. Tuskaloosa’s son was killed but the giant chief himself should have managed to escape. 

Powhatan and Smith
Powhatan and Smith
Susquehannock - European
Susquehannock – European

    Captain John Smith (1580-1631) was an English soldier, explorer and author. He played an important part in the establishment the first permanent English settlement in North America; Jamestown, and he was later knighted as an admiral of New England. John Smith encountered an Indians tribe of unusual size: here is from his his desciptions of the Susquehannock Indians: 
“Such great and well proportioned men, are seldome seene, for they seemed like Giants to the English, yea and to the neighbours: yet seemed of an honest and simple disposition, with much adoe restrained from adoring the discoverers as Gods. Those are the most strange people of all those Countries, both in language and attire; for their language it may well beseeme their proportions, sounding from them, as it were a great voice in a vault, or cave, as an Eccho.” “The picture of the greatest of them is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose leg was 3 quarters of a yard about: and all the rest of his limbes so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the godliest man that ever we beheld.”
In December 1607 Johns Smith was captured. He was taken to the chief of the Powhatans and later claimned that his life was saved by the chief’s daughter, Pocahontas. Well, we might know Pocahontas best from the 1995 animated film produced by Walt Disney, but the real Pocahontas was captured by the English in 1613, she later married the tobacco planter John Rolfe. 
Capture white women
We have seen in old cowboy-films how the Indians capture white women. Well, those films never give any true picture of the Indians but it is a fact that young white girls were captured and married to warriors and chiefs. One reason given is that the Indians needed to replenish losses suffered in the warfare against the settlers or neighbouring tribes. Another reason might be that some of the white people reminded the Indians about the people they had learned about in the old tribal stories – the mighty first people of the country. By getting babies with the white girls they might get blood making their offspring tall, strong and with godlike power!

Captain Cook killed in Hawaii
Captain Cook in Hawaii

    It is no secret that native women in many developing countries even today are dreaming about marrying white men. Of course many times to flee from poverty but I have through my travels also learned that many natives consider the white people to be closer to the Gods. And from the history books we have learned how many Indians in both North and South America, as well as the natives on the Pacific Islands, believed that the first white explorers were their old Gods returning! 
Or – might be it originally was the other way around; that the giants who came sailing across the ocean needed women? We read in the legends that there seemed to be only male giants that landed on the islands and the Americas – so might be it was their blood that made the chiefs taller than the common Indian? Might be that is why it seems to be that the skeletons in the oldest mounds are the largest? 

Giants' graves in California.
Newspaper headline
Skulls of cavemen
New Age Magazine, 1913
Head and sholder above modern man
Bruce Herald, 1899
Bill and Jim Vieira
Bill and Jim Vieira
Lee Berger showing bone
Lee Berger showing bone

Newspaper articles 
There are so many old newspaper articles telling about giants bones found in mounds of the USA. Jim Vieira and Micah Evers have so far collected more than 1000, and other researchers plus myself have found a few as well. 
So what does the scientists say about all these articles about skeletons of gigantic size?
Well, here is from a reply I got from the Tennessee Division of Archaeology:
    “These reports predate the advent of professional, rigorous archaeological scholarship, and none of the supposed examples survive for re-examination by modern physical anthropologists. Although the myth of giants inhabiting the region is intriguing to many people and has a sizable internet following, there is no credible evidence to support this claim.”
Of course; some articles might be hoaxes, some might be wild exaggerations, some might sensationalized to sell papers and some might be edited versions of articles already printed, but the
number is just too huge to claim that they all arefalse. And many of the persons in the newspapers articles are easily confirmed as real and serious people, like doctors studying the skeletons and takingmeasurements. Would they not have protested if
newspapers used their names in articles that were not true? 
    Some of the articles have picture showing large bones and skulls – in a time where digital photo editing did not exist! Some with a measuring stick along the skeleton. And it is not only newspaper articles; there are many reports written by historical associations and state bodies. Yes, large bones are even mentioned in Smithsonian’s yearly reports, here is from the 
12th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-1891: “Near the original surface, 10 or 12 feet from the center, on the lower side, lying at full length on its back, was one of the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet.” 
    Jim and his brother Bill spoke on the show with anthropologist Professor Todd R. Disotell at the New York University’s Center for the Study of Human Origins, and he said that it is extremely unlikely that a race of giants has existed but that unlikely becomes absolutely true with physical evidence. 
Well, he should know that two of the world most famous scientists when it comes to ancient human races, Abesalom Vekua of Georgia and Lee Berger of South Africa, can show us bones of what they themselves categorise as giants, and everybody is welcomed to see the fossilized bones if they do not believes in TV-reports or pictures!
I also believe that it was said at the show said that if there was found skeletons of giants then they would be on display so that people could come and see them and generate income for the museums. Well – is it so easy to forget about the about The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 
(NAGPRA)? 

California giant on display

     There have been large skeleton on display at museums, we even have pictures of them, but today this is no longer allowed! An interesting question is of course if the act will be in force if some of the large bones of the mounds are dated to be more than 13.000 years old because at that time there should be no Native Americans in North America!
Smithsonian denies
Why is it that Smithsonian today denies that they have any knowledge of giant skeletons – that there are no records of large bones in their archives? 
Dr. Greg Little is a psychologist, who also is an explorer and documentary maker. He did a review of Smithsonian’s two major reports from their mound investigations; the 1887 and 1894 Bureau of Ethnology Annual Reports. He noted that the Smithsonian’s field agents had found 17 skeletons that were close to 7 feet or taller. Here is his conclusion: “In essence, for the Smithsonian to have found 17 skeletons that were 7 feet tall by chance alone, they would have had to excavate 2.5 million skeletons.”

Chickasawba

    Dr. Little also found another report concerning the Chickasawba Mound in Blytheville, Arkansas, telling that many large skeletons were found at the site. He travelled to see the mound and also visited the nearby state Archaeology Field Station. They handed him the same report he had seen; relating that many skeletons ranging from 8 to 9 feet in length had been found there. As late as 1976 a 7-foot-tall skeleton was found at the site.
Cover-up
So why is it that some researchers claim that Smithsonian have giant skeletons stacked away in closed- off rooms? And why has several researchers, me included, experienced that the institution today denies that they ever had tall skeletons – even if their own old reports say that they have? Is Smithsonian behind a giant cover-up? 
Recently we could on the internet read an article telling that that Smithsonian admits to destruction of thousands of giant human skeletons in Early 1900’s and that a US Supreme Court ruling has forced the Smithsonian to release classified paper showing that the institution was involved in a major historical cover up: 
    “There has been a major cover up by western archaeological institutions since the early 1900’s to make us believe that America was first colonized by 
Asian peoples migrating through the Bering Strait 15,000 years ago, when in fact, there are hundreds of thousands of burial mounds all over America which the Natives claim were there a long time before them, and that show traces of a highly developed civilization, complex use of metal alloys and where giant human skeleton remains are frequently found but still go unreported in the media and news outlets” American Institution of Alternative Archeology (AIAA) spokesman, James Churward explains.

Lost continent of Mu
Lost continent of Mu

    Well, the allegations might very well be true but the article and court case is not! There is no American Institution of Alternative Archeology and James Churchward, the author of “The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man”, died in 1936! 
It is interesting, though, that the person behind the hoax chooses to user Churchward’s (misspelled) name because if there was a lost continent in the Pacific then we would have to rewrite all our theories about human development and migration! Churchward himself claimed to have gained his knowledge of this lost land after befriending an Indian priest, who taught him to read a lost language that made it possible for Churchward to decipher ancient tablets with the story about Mu.

    If it is true the Smithsonian and other institutions is behind a cover-up when it comes to giants then the question must be: Why? 
Is it because that the existence of a race of giants does not fit in the theory of evolution?

New species
Well, since year 2000 the anthropologists have discovered 8 new species of hominins. The theory that they and all other human species wandered out of Africa is getting more and more difficult to explain. New findings and DNA-testing of ancient bones have also forced the mainstream scientists to change their view on the first hominins time and time again. The Neanderthal was first believe to be much taller than us homo sapiens but with smaller brain. Then the theory was that they were about our size or slightly smaller but that they had larger brain. Now a theory is that archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals had a brain of about the same size but that the Neanderthals had a much larger and more powerful cerebellum. And we all remember drawings of Neanderthals as stupid 
cave dwellers with almost as much hair as a monkey. Well, now some scientists believe that it us who were the stupid ones while the Neanderthal had a language, quite advanced tools, made beautiful art, cooked their vegetables, lived in social groups, and buried their dead. That they even had a good knowledge of the sun and the stars and were capable of building boats! 

Sapiens and Neanderthal
Sapiens and Neanderthal
Elongated skull Siberia
Elongated skull Siberia
Chinook Indian, USA
Chinook Indian, USA
Baby, South America
Baby, South America

    So might be it was the Neanderthal and not the Denisovans that found the way across the ocean and ended up in the Americas? Might be. But so far it is the Denisovans that seems to have been taller and more robust than the other species of early hominins with capacity and brain to use tools to make boats. 
Excavations of the Denisova cave and DNA-testing of the bones found there and in the area around it shows that Denisovans, Homo sapiens and Neanderthal most probably interbred. The researchers are quite sure that the Denisovans produced hybrids with us human – and it might have been Neanderthal genes in the mix as well, plus the genes from a mysterious species of hominin that so far only has shown up in the labs.

Lost species
When we are talking about lost or mysterious hominins I just have to mention elongated skulls. You find them as good as all over the world, also among the Native Americans. 
The conservative scientists claim that there never have been people with naturally elongated skulls; that it just was a custom among some people to bind the skulls of their children. But why should they have a custom that must have been very impractical and even painful to their children. Aesthetically more pleasing? Signify group affiliation? Look more intelligent? Demonstrate social status? Might be in many cases but it must also be allowed to point out that it might have been trying to replicate people that looked like that: People that was born with long skulls; admired humans that even was looked upon as gods. Lost species of humans.
There has been found skulls in South America with naturally elongated skulls, with a cranial volume too big to be caused by manmade cranial deformation. There has also been found mummies of babies and children to young to have an elongation performed on them. Joseph Pentland from Ireland writes about adult skulls which he excavated near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia in 1827: “..these skulls belonged to a race of mankind now extinct, and which differed from any now existing”.
     Who were they? Well, shall we take a guess that they might have been Denisovans or Denisovan/Neanderthal/Homo Sapiens hybrids?
Six Fingers

Six fingered statue from Ukraine Sky Cachina
Ukraine
Sky Cachina
Six fingers on Catalina Island.
Six fingers, Catalina

My research on giants started many years ago when I discovered that many ancient statues all over the world have six fingers. Most often they depicted local gods but they were also very tall – what we can call giants. 
A little figure that supposedly dates back to 4,000 BC was once found in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. It has six fingers. Most people are not so interested in the fingers but that it seems to be wearing a space suit. 
Another small figure that has fix fingers is of the Sky Kachina. The legends of the Hopi Indians in North America tell that they originally lived in a land in the middle of the Pacific Ocean but had to flee when the sea rose. The God that helped them get from island to island across the ocean was Sky Kachina, and she had six fingers and could fly. 
Some say that the existence of evil men with six fingers is why some Native American tribes raised their hands when they greeted strangers: to show that they did not descend from them! 

    Researcher and author L.A. Marzulli, who travelled to Catalina Island to take a closer look at Ralph Glidden’s pictures of very large skeletons, also discovered that at least one of them had six fingers. 
The ancient culture
“Terry”, you might ask, “you are talking about six fingers and large skeletons but where are all the megalithic structures – if they brought their culture from the other side of the ocean why can you only show us mounds of soil and not gigantic walls of stone?”
Well, you can find megaliths in North America but most of them are in Mexico. In the US there are not so many – not today anyway. A reason is again of course that the settlers did not have time to take interest of the structures that they found dotting their newfound country. They dynamited the stones and used them as landfill for roads, they drilled and cut the stones and used them in churches and official buildings! 
And of course; if they came across the sea from Asia because they fled from an enormous catastrophe they would not have with them all the “ordinary people” that had helped (voluntary or not) to build the walls, dolmen and statues!
The country might also have been empty if they came as early as for 20.000 or even more years ago; and when the people that became the Native Americans arrived later on they might not have been so keen on slaving stones! And the offsprings of the Denisovans marrying with the Indians might have lost interest in making megalithic structures or even forgotten how to do it! 

Dolmen, Salem
Dolmen, Salem
Burnt Hill Stone Circle
Burnt Hill Stone Circle
Rockwall, Texas
Rockwall, Texas

    But you will indeed find some megaliths in the US and I will give you just a few sample:
Probably the most well-known example of a dolmen is the found in North Salem in northern Westchester County, NY. An almost 100-ton boulder of granite is placed on standing stones of marble. A sign close to the dolmen says that the stone was placed like that not by man but because of ice-age. It is simular to dolmen found all over the world – in Korea you can find almost 40.000 of them – and they did not have any ice age there..!
You will also be able to find ancient stone circles in the US. One of the better samples is the Burnt Hill Stone Circle in Heath, Massachusetts. And here the scientists agree that they are pre-Columbian. But the Native Americans do not have any remembrance of a culture of raising stones.
So what about megalithic walls? Well, a 20 mile long megalithic wall was discovered near Rockwall in Texas about 1852. Mainstream archaeologists tell us that the stone-wall is a natural formation but might be they did not have any other option? 

    Ancient sites expert and archaeologist James Whittall says the following about the megaliths: “I find it difficult to distinguish the North American examples from the European ones and I believe that both sets were produced by ancient builders who shared a common culture.” 
All cultures
You might still claim that there should be more megalithic structures to be found in the US since we find so many more in Mexico and in South America. Well, the scientists now seem to find evidence that our planet has been through series of major catastrophes; large comets splashing down creating tsunamis hundreds of meters tall washing about everything away, solar bursts that have melted ice and created major earthquakes and even rapid movement of the tectonic plates making mountains rise and fall. 
Yes, Thor Heyerdahl (who was more a researcher than an adventurer, he saw the ocean crossings in Kon-Tiki, Ra and Tigis necessary to prove his theories on human migration in pre-history) asked me if everything could be going round in cycles – like a wheel turning round and round when it comes to our spaceship Earth and us humans on it. He knew very well that almost all cultures have legends and religious scriptures telling that we humans have been trough several periods of extinction to almost the last man. Like the Aztec; they believed that we have been trough four major periods; that we now are in the 5th “Sun”. And that we in the first period were giants. 

James Churchward
Ica stone

Other way around
Might be it was the other way around; that the Denisovans originated in the Americas? Could it at all be possible that they lived at the same time as the dinosaurs? Is this why some of the (controversial) Ica-stones are depicting a giant of a man hunting dinosaurs? 
Did the original Denisovans of one unknown reason migrate to the north and then east across the Bering Land Bridge? According to new research: Siberia went though a period of warm weather about 30.000 years ago, and the land bridge between Alaska and Russia was dry land all the way. 
The last ace age in North Ameirica reached its greatest extent between about 22,000 years ago. Then the ice started to melt. The scientists say that melting brought about floods that occurred approximately 40 times between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago.

    Did the collapsing ice dams at the now vanished Lake Agassiz bring a catastrophic flood that swept the remains of their civilisation, like megalithic structures, away? 
And then, when the Siberia was getting colder and the ice had melted in North America; did they return to their homeland by boat? 

James Churchward
Thor Heyerdahl

Who knows? 
The major problem when it comes to the human development can be that the timeline can be wrong. Our dating of artefacts and ancient human remains might be more or less off if the conditions on our planet have changed dramatically. Like if the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased or decreased. Yes, changes in the atmosphere by the so called greenhouse gases like CO2 and methane is what the scientists now believe might have started and ended both the ice ages and the warm periods!
So who knows? 
Heyerdahl said that the oceans were roads and not barriers in the ancient times. And through more and more advanced DNA-testing we seem to discover that we humans have been here, there and everywhere on the globe – long before we were supposed to have left Africa! So who knows? Was it us Homo sapiens that travelled the world, or the Neanderthals, the Denisovans or the unknown, mysterious species?
And should we care?
Well, Heyerdahl also said that without knowing the past is impossible to say something about our future – so I believe that it is important that we are trying hard to disclose what seems to be a hidden past!
My job is to ask the questions – and hopefully we will get some answers.

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Beautiful Music

I am sending you a wonderful song to listen to tonight.  I hope that this New Year rings in with my ability to find and forward authentic information to you about our lost history.  May we all learn together and never be afraid to help me out on this journey that we are on together.

Sherry

 

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Happy New Year! 2015 Has Arrived

I hope that you had a fun holiday and enjoy the first day of this new year.

I expect that this year will bring many new interesting stories for me to share with you.  As always, I will forward those along that are interesting.  I cannot guarantee that they are all true, but I will do my best to weed out the hoaxes.

I do not know about you, but for me, I get frustrated with those people who try to skew the facts that we uncover.  And, the more we find, the more we know that our ancient history is far more interesting than we are led to believe.  I just wish that Jim and Bill Vieira could find a big skeleton for us to see, but at this point, I really don’t care.  I think that the photos, Indian Legends, and newspaper journal reports, and colonists’ diaries are sufficient to support the notion that a race of giants once ruled North America.

Anyway, here’s my first share for this New Year!  A new book that talks about the Mississippians.  Were they the Toltecs, Mayans, Aztecs….  I will order this to learn the mysteries of this culture.

Medieval Mississippians

Edited by Timothy R. Pauketat and Susan M. Alt

Medieval Mississippians2015. 168 pp., color plates, figures, maps, suggested reading, index, 8.5 x 11Medieval Mississippians, the eighth volume in the award-winning Popular Archaeology Series, introduces a key historical period in pre-Columbian eastern North America—the “Mississippian” era—via a series of colorful chapters on places, practices, and peoples written from Native American and non-Native perspectives on the past. The volume lays out the basic contours of the early centuries of this era (AD 1000–1300) in the Mississippian heartland, making connections to later centuries and contemporary peoples. Cahokia the place and Cahokian social history undergird the book, but Mississippian material culture, landscapes, and descendants are highlighted, presenting a balanced view of the Mississippian world.

Contributors: Susan M. Alt, Sarah E. Baires, Danielle M. Benden, Robert F. Boszhardt, Charles R. Cobb, Robert Cook, Marisa Miakonda Cummings, Thomas E. Emerson,Michael G. Farkas, Megan C. Kassabaum, Adam King,Brad H. Koldehoff, Fred Limp, John W. O’Hear, Timothy R. Pauketat, Angie Payne, Staffan Peterson, Donna J. Rausch, William F. Romain, Vincas P. Steponaitis, Amber M. VanDerwarker, Greg D. Wilson, Snow Winters, Thomas J. Zych

View the Table of Contents

Download an excerpt (PDF, 624 KB).

Read Reviews

  • “Pauketat and Alt have done an impressive job of bringing twenty-eight archaeologists and Native Americans together to produce seventeen essays about the complex Mississippian culture, its many settlements, and how they related to each other and the ancient urban center of Cahokia, the largest prehistoric community in America, but still followed their own regional trajectories. The narratives are presented in a manner easily understood by the general reader but they are also of value to archaeologists and others fascinated with prehistory and culture. With each chapter, one learns more about the Mississippian world—its people, places, beliefs, and material culture—as it rose, flourished, and diminished. The numerous illustrations reveal the accomplishments of this ancient cultural tradition, how its world was organized, and the skill of its artisans.” 
    William R. Iseminger, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
  • “This book elevates the Mississippians to a rightful place among the world’s greatest civilizations. Accessible and engaging, Medieval Mississippians brings to life the towns, mounds, temples, and technologies and of an astonishing culture that spanned the eastern United States eight hundred years ago. Even better, editors Pauketat and Alt crafted this work to reveal the breadth and range of Mississippian life, to explain how archaeologists work, and to remind readers that the Mississippians, far from being a lost people, have thousands of descendants living and working (including at archaeology) in the Mississippi Valley today. ” 
    April K. Sievert, Indiana University
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Merry Christmas

http://www.americangreetings.com/ecards/view?p=3405103&m=2618&i=618369014&source=agfb&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=pickup

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Good News! Blood Brothers/Night of the Wolf has been accepted by my publisher

I hope you will see my next book in your bookstores by this summer!  Once I finish the cleanup and add the artwork, I will start on a third one.  This series is written to inspire and to educate you on the intelligence and spiritual wisdom that our lost society had.

The more I learn about the civilizations that ruled America before Columbus, I know that we have missed out on an awesome and sad history.  But, our history seems to parallel the rise and fall of empires just like Europe’s.  I just wonder what some of the king’s and queen’s names were and how did they rule.  Maybe we will find it written in one of our petroglyphs.

I will close.  I hope you have a wonderful holiday season.

Sherry

 

 

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Happy Holidays from the Algonquian Society

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Graham Hancock’s Global Cataclysm

This is a new posting from Graham Hancock on his recent discovery of a global catalysm.  It is an interesting article.  I hope you enjoy it.

 

Global Cataclysm

THE FINGERPRINT OF A GLOBAL CATACLYSM 12,800 YEARS AGO
The graphic shows the vast swathe of our planet that geologists call the Younger Dryas Boundary Field. Across this huge "fingerprint" spanning North America, Central America, parts of South America and most of Europe, the tell-tale traces of multiple impacts by the fragments of a giant comet have been found. Some of these fragments, were TWO KILOMETRES or more in diameter and they hit the earth like a blast from a cosmic scatter-gun around 12,800 years ago. This was near the end of the last Ice Age, from which our world had been emerging into a pleasant warming phase, but the impacts set in train a kind of "nuclear winter" and plunged the planet back into a period of deep cold and darkness that lasted until around 11,500 years ago. It is this period of extreme cold that is referred to as the Younger Dryas (after a characteristic Alpine tundra wildflower, Dryas octopetala) but it is only now, with conclusive evidence of the comet impact, that we can be sure what caused it. For the past seven years academics have been involved in such an intense dispute about whether or not a comet impact actually occurred 12,800 years ago that the implications of what it might have meant for the story of civilisation have not yet been considered at all. But every attempt to refute the impact evidence has in turn been refuted and the case for the Younger Dryas comet is now so compelling that it is time to widen the debate. It is clear now that some of the largest fragments of the comet hit the North American ice cap, which was still a mile deep 12,800 years ago, and caused cataclysmic flooding (I had the opportunity to explore some of the extraordinary effects of this on the ground in September 2014 when I drove from Portland, Oregon, to Minneapolis, Minnesota, with catastrophist researcher Randall Carlson). Simultaneously other large fragments hit the northern European ice cap with the same cataclysmic effects. The result was a global disaster that lasted for 1,300 years. It is, I believe, the "smoking gun" that made us a species with amnesia and wiped out almost all traces of a former high civilisation of prehistoric antiquity. But there were survivors, who preserved at least some of the knowledge of the civilisation that had been destroyed with the intention of transmitting it to future generations, so it is not an accident that the first traces of the re-emergence of civilisation, in the form of the earliest known megalithic architecture and the re-promulgation of agricultural skills, occur at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey 11,500 years ago -- a date that coincides exactly with the end of the Younger Dryas and the return to a more congenial global environment. Everything we have been taught about the origins of civilisation occurs AFTER 11,500 years ago -- in other words AFTER the radical punctuation mark of the Younger Dryas. It is what happened before that we desperately need to recover. These are amongst the mysteries that I am exploring in "Magicians of the Gods", the book that I have been researching for the past three years and am now in the midst of writing.

Graphic from Kinzie, Firestone, Kennett et al. "Nanodiamond-Rich Layer across Three Continents Consistent with Major Cosmic Impact at 12,800 Cal BP", The Journal of Geology, 2014, volume 122, p. 475–506.

THE FINGERPRINT OF A GLOBAL CATACLYSM 12,800 YEARS AGO
The graphic shows the vast swathe of our planet that geologists call the Younger Dryas Boundary Field. Across this huge “fingerprint” spanning North America, Central America, parts of South America and most of Europe, the tell-tale traces of multiple impacts by the fragments of a giant comet have been found. Some of these fragments, were TWO KILOMETRES or more in diameter and they hit the earth like a blast from a cosmic scatter-gun around 12,800 years ago. This was near the end of the last Ice Age, from which our world had been emerging into a pleasant warming phase, but the impacts set in train a kind of “nuclear winter” and plunged the planet back into a period of deep cold and darkness that lasted until around 11,500 years ago. It is this period of extreme cold that is referred to as the Younger Dryas (after a characteristic Alpine tundra wildflower, Dryas octopetala) but it is only now, with conclusive evidence of the comet impact, that we can be sure what caused it. For the past seven years academics have been involved in such an intense dispute about whether or not a comet impact actually occurred 12,800 years ago that the implications of what it might have meant for the story of civilisation have not yet been considered at all. But every attempt to refute the impact evidence has in turn been refuted and the case for the Younger Dryas comet is now so compelling that it is time to widen the debate. It is clear now that some of the largest fragments of the comet hit the North American ice cap, which was still a mile deep 12,800 years ago, and caused cataclysmic flooding (I had the opportunity to explore some of the extraordinary effects of this on the ground in September 2014 when I drove from Portland, Oregon, to Minneapolis, Minnesota, with catastrophist researcher Randall Carlson). Simultaneously other large fragments hit the northern European ice cap with the same cataclysmic effects. The result was a global disaster that lasted for 1,300 years. It is, I believe, the “smoking gun” that made us a species with amnesia and wiped out almost all traces of a former high civilisation of prehistoric antiquity. But there were survivors, who preserved at least some of the knowledge of the civilisation that had been destroyed with the intention of transmitting it to future generations, so it is not an accident that the first traces of the re-emergence of civilisation, in the form of the earliest known megalithic architecture and the re-promulgation of agricultural skills, occur at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey 11,500 years ago — a date that coincides exactly with the end of the Younger Dryas and the return to a more congenial global environment. Everything we have been taught about the origins of civilisation occurs AFTER 11,500 years ago — in other words AFTER the radical punctuation mark of the Younger Dryas. It is what happened before that we desperately need to recover. These are amongst the mysteries that I am exploring in “Magicians of the Gods”, the book that I have been researching for the past three years and am now in the midst of writing.

Graphic from Kinzie, Firestone, Kennett et al. “Nanodiamond-Rich Layer across Three Continents Consistent with Major Cosmic Impact at 12,800 Cal BP”, The Journal of Geology, 2014, volume 122, p. 475–506.

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